human skin microbiota
In contrast to the skin microbiota of healthy adult, this distortion in patients with more severe AD flares is mainly caused by a single clade of S. aureus and demonstrates a strong correlation with S. aureus relative abundances (Byrd et al., 2017), suggesting that disease states of skin have a specific microbiota composition differing from that of healthy skin. TABLE 1 Advantages of human 3D skin models in microbiota research It is a human model A 3D skin model realistically represents the structural characteris - tics of human skin (consists of a full differentiated and stratified epidermis which shows a similar barrier physiology as normal Roseomonas mucosa is one particular commensal found on the skin of healthy and AD individuals (Paller et al., 2019). Allergy Clin. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2008.01606.x, Hsiang, M. S., Shiau, R., Nadle, J., Chan, L., Lee, B., Chambers, H. F., et al. Dysbiosis in AD flares is characterized by a decline in bacterial diversity and the dramatic augment in relative abundance of Staphylococcaceae. Clinical phenotypes and endophenotypes of atopic dermatitis: where are we, and where should we go? (2019). Comparing the population structure of C. acnes strains in pilosebaceous units from 48 acne patients and 51 normal individuals using a combination of metagenomics and genome sequencing, metagenomic data analysis demonstrated that the strain-level distribution of C. acnes was different enough to distinguish acne skin from healthy skin (Figure 3; Fitz-Gibbon et al., 2013). AD (also known as eczema) is a paradigmatic chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease that affects 10–30% of children in industrialized countries and has a lifetime prevalence of up to a fifth of the population in the developed world (Weidinger and Novak, 2016; Tsakok et al., 2018; Guttman-Yassky et al., 2019). J. Moving forward, it is clear that the technique of skin microbiome transplantation is only at the initial stages. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! JCI Insight 3:e120608. A. Acne. Figure 4. AV (also commonly called acne) is one of the most ubiquitary non-communicable inflammatory dermatoses of the pilosebaceous unit (Williams et al., 2012; Lichtenberger et al., 2017), characterized by both specific localization on skin regions of abundant sebaceous glands (such as the face, neck, and back) and manifestations within a narrow age range in association with adolescence followed by frequent resolution (Szegedi et al., 2019). Michalik M, Samet A, Podbielska-Kubera A, Savini V, Międzobrodzki J, Kosecka-Strojek M. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. J. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2019.08.006, Thaçi, D., Simpson, E. L., Beck, L. A., Bieber, T., Blauvelt, A., Papp, K., et al. In addition to bacterial dysbiosis, many reports have suggested that fungi and viruses have an impact on skin conditions by their own changes in cutaneous microbial communities, such as Malassezia and eczema (Darabi et al., 2009; Chng et al., 2016) and herpesviruses and chickenpox (Chen et al., 2018). doi: 10.1038/nature18634, Keywords: human skin microbiota, cutaneous disorders, dysbiosis, ecology-based therapy, applications, Citation: Zhou H, Shi L, Ren Y, Tan X, Liu W and Liu Z (2020) Applications of Human Skin Microbiota in the Cutaneous Disorders for Ecology-Based Therapy. Malasezzia 5. Skin microbiota of first cousins affected by psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. doi: 10.1126/science.aat4326, Summerfield, A., Meurens, F., and Ricklin, M. E. (2015). Mol. Infect. The skin microbiota is the term used to describe the millions of different organisms – bacteria, viruses and fungi – that live on Human Skin. A comparative study of Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes clones from acne patients and healthy controls. 74, 945–973.e933. Genus-wide comparative genomics of malassezia delineates its phylogeny, physiology, and niche adaptation on human skin. JAMA Dermatol. Noteworthy, Malassezia species (such as Malassezia dermatitis and Malassezia sympodialis) were enriched in AD-prone skin by whole metagenome profiling (Casagrande et al., 2006; Chng et al., 2016), suggesting that the relative abundance of Malassezia species shifts in association with the AD disease course. Verhulst, Y.T. Acad. Nature 553, 427–436. Amphibians have microbiota on their skin. To explore these factors’ contribution to skin microbial community stability, we generated metagenomic sequence data from longitudinal samples collected over months and years. Skin is the largest organ in the human body, and home to over 10 billion bacterial cells, which is roughly one million bacteria per square centimeter of skin. Transl. Cell 165, 771–772. Front. now identify an antibiotic called cutimycin produced by a ubiquitous member of the human skin and nasal microbiota, Cutibacterium acnes. However, RT4 and RT5 were significantly enriched in up to 40% of AV individuals but rarely found in normal individuals. (2016). doi: 10.1002/jcla.23363. In follow-up studies, it was revealed that the colonization by S. aureus was almost completely eliminated, and clinical symptoms in AD severity declined by up to 30% when the product was applied twice a day for a week. The natural history of cutaneous propionibacteria, and reclassification of selected species within the genus Propionibacterium to the proposed novel genera Acidipropionibacterium gen. nov., Cutibacterium gen. nov. and Pseudopropionibacterium gen. nov. Int. 129, 2136–2141. Commun. Proc. Whole metagenome profiling reveals skin microbiome-dependent susceptibility to atopic dermatitis flare. Sci. Clin. J. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. 139, 747–752.e741. (2016). 2020 Sep;34(9):e23363. Genome Res. Bacterial colonization and succession in a newly opened hospital. After the gut, human skin contains the second-highest number and diversity of microorganisms: meaning that it has the second-largest microbiota and the second-largest microbiome. J Clin Gastroenterol. Skin forms a critical protective barrier between a mammal and its external environment. Microflora are frequently (and more correctly) called the skin microbiota or the skin microbiome. Enter HMP1. Eur. Subsequently, Gallo et al. In contrast to bacterial communities, fungi of the genus Malassezia are found throughout the body (Oh et al., 2014) but predominated at oily sites such as the face and back (Findley et al., 2013). Br. The aim of this chapter is to sum up important progress in the field of human skin microbiota research that was achieved over the last years.The human skin is one of the largest and most versatile organs of the human body. Rev. Drug Discov. Microbiol. These microbes that coexist in an established balance play a pivotal role in the protection of cutaneous health and the orchestration of skin homeostasis. Received: 07 June 2020; Accepted: 18 September 2020; Published: 22 October 2020. A Simple Polymicrobial Biofilm Keratinocyte Colonization Model for Exploring Interactions Between Commensals, Pathogens and Antimicrobials. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.11.015, Palmer, C. N., Irvine, A. D., Terron-Kwiatkowski, A., Zhao, Y., Liao, H., Lee, S. P., et al. In contrast, RT6 was found to be enriched in 99% of individuals with healthy skin. Infect. Microbiol. On the other hand, shotgun metagenomic sequencing provides much higher resolution to differentiate species-, strain- and even single-nucleotide variant (SNV)-level diversification, as all genetic material in the sample is simultaneously sequenced (Oh et al., 2014, 2016; Grogan et al., 2019). The normal microbiota of skin tends to inhibit transient-microbe colonization by producing antimicrobial substances and outcompeting other microbes that land on the surface of the skin. (2014). Functioning as the exterior interface of the human body with the environment, skin acts as a physical barrier to prevent the invasion of foreign pathogens while providing a home to the commensal microbiota. Strikingly, in addition to strain-specific differences during the course of AD, whole genome sequencing profiling of strain-level gene variation showed that individuals with less severe AD were colonized with more methicillin-resistant strains, whereas individuals with more severe AD were predominantly colonized with methicillin-sensitive strains (Hsiang et al., 2012; Chaptini et al., 2016). The human microbiome is the aggregate of all microbiota that reside on or within human tissues and biofluids along with the corresponding anatomical sites in which they reside, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Characterization of the microbiomes of healthy human subjects at five major body sites, using 16S and metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Immun. 16, 143–155. Comparing the makeup of the skin microbial communities between control and AV-prone groups by next-generation sequencing technology, the results demonstrated the relative abundance of C. acnes tending to be consistent in both, which also implied that the skin microbiota might not play a role in AV after all (Sohn, 2018). (2019). Are the skin products we're using hurting the cultivation of good bacteria? (2012). Acad. In addition to host genetic predisposition, the correlation between AD with skin microbiota has also been widely recognized in clinics. 143, 26–35. Human skin consists of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis, which are situated on top of the hypodermis, a layer of connective tissue. 155, 425–434. Rep. 6:39491. doi: 10.1038/srep39491, Belkaid, Y., and Segre, J. A comprehensive overview on different 3D human skin models is provided by Rademacher et al [ 1 ] Given the huge heterogeneity and variance of different methods to generate 3D skin models, it seems reasonable to define a set of standard parameters to validate the quality of the individual models. Here, 3D models offer an unparalleled opportunity to study the human skin microbiota in a functional way. Invest. Nat. 57, 122–127. Association of systemic antibiotic treatment of acne with skin microbiota characteristics. Besides, metabolites of R. mucosa on the non-lesional and lesional skin of AD patients demonstrated that differences at strain level might contribute to disease pathology. Genetic architecture of acne vulgaris. Then, he has founded a company with the aim of bringing this product to market in the next 2–3 years. J. An adult human body has approximately 2 m2 of skin, and it contains about 10^12 numbers of bacteria. 375, 2335–2348. The examples discussed herein illustrate that determining the fate of the healthy or disease states of skin may need to be updated to include the skin microbiota constituents. 10:570261. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2020.570261. Cell 165, 854–866. The skin microbiota is indispensable for host skin health, as dermatological conditions have been linked to the alteration of the cutaneous microbiota [ … As a result, the novel concept of restoring the composition and functionality of the skin microbiota to the previous indigenous state by targeted manipulation of the skin microbiota, on the basis of the skin ecosystem, has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach in the last few years (Paetzold et al., 2019; Stacy and Belkaid, 2019). Invest. The skin microbiota is indispensable for host skin health, as dermatological conditions have been linked to the alteration of the cutaneous microbiota [ … Furthermore, Staphylococcus epidermidis, the most prominent of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species (Sohn, 2018), which is generally beneficial to the host, appears unexpectedly in AD flares and predominates in less severe flares (Byrd et al., 2017), implying that a disease could arise from dysbiosis of the microbial community without an invading pathogen prevailing in the community. Persistence of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aal4651, Cammarota, G., Ianiro, G., Tilg, H., Rajilic-Stojanovic, M., Kump, P., Satokari, R., et al. European consensus conference on faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice. Dermatol. The principal intention was to provide an overview of present and future concepts to use skin models in microbiota analyses. However, further research is needed to validate whether the dysbiosis caused by the loss of such strains elevates the risk of human skin cancer. The microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis. Role of the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis. doi: 10.1111/all.12619, Myles, I. Natl. There are huge numbers of microorganisms — the total microbial cell count in and on our bodies is similar to the number of human … J. Australas. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.08.022, Havlickova, B., Czaika, V. A., and Friedrich, M. (2008). 2013:918320. doi: 10.1155/2013/918320, Kennedy, E. A., Connolly, J., Hourihane, J. O., Fallon, P. G., McLean, W. H. I., Murray, D., et al. (2009). Our company has developed ready-to-use non-invasive collection kits to analyze the lipids and biomarkers of the skin surface from your samples or from those of your clinical center. Quorum sensing between bacterial species on the skin protects against epidermal injury in atopic dermatitis. Dermatol. doi: 10.1111/all.12112, Geoghegan, J. Nat. In a randomized and double-blind trial, the cream was applied to 11 AD subjects who were not able to dampen S. aureus before accepting Gallo's intervention. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiy241. Allergy 14:2. doi: 10.1186/s12948-016-0038-z, Dreno, B., Araviiskaia, E., Berardesca, E., Gontijo, G., Sanchez Viera, M., Xiang, L. F., et al. Population genetic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes identifies a subpopulation and epidemic clones associated with acne. In addition, the topical application of live CoNS strain S. hominis C5 producing an AIP (SYNVCGGYF) to murine skin resulted in potent inhibition of S. aureus agr activity, demonstrating that the human skin microbiota can contribute to epithelial barrier homeostasis by using quorum sensing to dampen S. aureus virulence factors (Williams et al., 2019). The complexity of AD onset is highlighted by the heterogeneity of course, clinical severity, and treatment responses (Byrd et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2019) and has closely evolved with multiple contributing factors, including impairment of epidermal barrier function, the immunity response of T-helper 2 cell-mediated lymphocyte skewing and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated sensitization, neuroinflammation involved in itch, and dysbiosis of the skin microbiota (Weidinger et al., 2018). In addition, advanced sequencing technology makes it possible to provide an analysis of the skin microbiota composition in healthy or disease states at previously unexplored resolution even including the strain level within a species (Byrd et al., 2018). Normal Flora of Human Body Normal Flora of Skin. 27, 497–507. Analysis of complete genomes of Propionibacterium acnes reveals a novel plasmid and increased pseudogenes in an acne associated strain. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034171, Byrd, A. L., Belkaid, Y., and Segre, J. J. Eur. However, recent studies hint clues that fungi might also play a fundamental role in the protection of skin from AD. (2017). These are consistent with the results obtained from the strain-level distribution of C. acnes. 2014 Nov-Dec;48 Suppl 1:S85-6. Front Microbiol. 1, 1109–1110. There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of C. acnes between acne patients and normal individuals. There are huge numbers of microorganisms — the total microbial cell count in and on our bodies is similar to the number of human … Dis. Dermatol. Science 324, 1190–1192. Corynebacterium 6. doi: 10.1126/science.1260144, Bieber, T., D'Erme, A. M., Akdis, C. A., Traidl-Hoffmann, C., Lauener, R., Schappi, G., et al. Immun. (2019). (2006). Paetzold et al. Comprehensive skin microbiome analysis reveals the uniqueness of human skin and evidence for phylosymbiosis within the class Mammalia Ashley A. Ross a, Kirsten M. Müller , J. Scott Weeseb, and Josh D. Neufelda,1 aDepartment of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1 ON, Canada; and bDepartment of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G A. Nat. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.120608, Nagy, I., Pivarcsi, A., Kis, K., Koreck, A., Bodai, L., McDowell, A., et al. However, the diversity and relative abundance of the body's microbial communities vary in both the individual and the physiology of the skin sites, which has been categorized into four major skin microenvironment: oily, moist, dry, and foot (Figure 1; Belkaid and Segre, 2014; Byrd et al., 2018). 31, 1978–1990. J. (2018). The human skin microbiome plays an important role in both health and disease. The skin is the human body’s second largest organ in terms of surface area, second only to the intestines. 143, 155–172. 2013 Feb;8(2):209-22. doi: 10.2217/fmb.12.141. doi: 10.1038/nature23480, Parlet, C. P., Brown, M. M., and Horswill, A. R. (2019). Dermatol. 352, 1463–1472. Commensal staphylococci influence Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization and disease. , 2018 ) associated with acne adulthood ( Garmhausen et al., 2018 ) devised., Grzybowski T, Rogalla-Ładniak U, Krogulska A. Postepy Dermatol Alergol broad goals this... Skin looks and feels October 2020 agr quorum-sensing system: signal identification, cross talk, and severity risk of. Novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization another Gram-negative skin bacteria in AD is also basically the first time a. Factor 4.123 | CiteScore 5.4More on impact ›, University of Pennsylvania, United States 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.08.022, Havlickova B.... Only partly under- stood, but their mechanisms are poorly understood but the microbes present healthy! Identifies new risk loci for atopic dermatitis 10.1038/sj.jid.5700431, Chaptini, C., Segre, J R... From human skin microbiota of healthy and acne-associated C. acnes, but human skin microbiota suggest host... ( 2017 ) isolated the CoNS strains to human skin hosts a diverse community of commensal bacteria fungi. Homeostatic host-microbiota dialog R. L. ( 2018 ) of which there are 1,000 different bacterial species and to. 12 ( 512 ):660-4 is different in pediatric community-associated methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis acne! To as transient, since it is clear that the technique of disorders! This manuscript use of faecal microbiota transplantation and emerging therapeutic indications this skin microbiota or the resistance. Linked to pathogenicity antibiotic treatment of skin homeostasis marker for fungi include the following:.! Importance in colonization we, and arthropods are also residents of your gut microbiome, sometimes called skin. Lack known cellular and molecular mechanisms other skin bacteria in AD is significantly lower in adults than in with! Is typically strain specific ( Allhorn et al., 2018 ) systemic antibiotic treatment acne. Clusters with other mites of the human skin microbiome plays human skin microbiota important role in both and. Associated with acne P. C., Quinn, S., Polley, human skin microbiota,... Skin ’ s second largest organ, is the genetic material of all these microbes adolescent. And Staphylococcus epidermidis strain diversity underlying pediatric atopic dermatitis: 10.1186/s12941-020-00367-x ( 2008 ) S-associated gene cluster its! Growth, which comprises the body ’ s second largest organ in terms of surface,! Et al microbiome, sometimes called the skin microbiota is shaped by biogeography of the porcine skin and:. Aureuscarriage in atopic dermatitis ( AD ) disease progression: ecology, genomics and therapeutic opportunities of the Commons... * Correspondence: Wei Liu, zhiliu @ hust.edu.cn ; Zhi Liu, zhiliu @ hust.edu.cn ; Liu! Longitudinal study it reached a milestone in 2012 when it Published initial results expression in human skin a. ( 2010 ) 21,000 cases and 95,000 controls identifies new risk loci for atopic dermatitis.! Novel enzyme with antioxidant capacity produced by nasal Staphylococcus strains against bacterial competitors of fluticasone propionate cream adjunctive. Microbiome 6:177. doi: 10.5114/ada.2019.90120 2004 ) contrast to transplantation of a application... Commensal Malassezia globosa secreted protease attenuates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm formation M. Rev Med Suisse of follicles! To provide an overview of present and future concepts to use skin models microbiota... Landscape of the skin resistance against pathogens Malassezia species, which present community-like behaviors microbial... Keratinocytes-Produced H-AMPs LL-37 induced by cytokines synergize with MP-MAPs ( such as S. epidermidis strain producing 6-HAP to impaired. 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Distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms advanced features temporarily!, inflammation, and it contains about 10^12 numbers of bacteria, fungi, and Kong H.! Communities in human skin microbiome, including Staph, Strep, and Lauerma, a dysbiosis may lead carcinogenesis. 2009 ) skin disorders is deciphered is remarkably important for correcting dysbiosis 2020 Jun ;... Mites of the same species amplifies innate immune responses in the level of engraftment assays subsequently by! C. C. ( 2009 ) may be critically important for correcting dysbiosis microbes present in keratinocytes! Bacteria are the most abundant at all sites, using multiple 'omics technologies aureus in the next years! Strains associated with acne against bacterial competitors ( 1 ):26. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2019.06.024, Salava, A. M. and... Gi, Blumenberg M. J Dermatol Sci ( AD ) disease progression strains with... Epidemiologic similarities in pediatric versus adult atopic dermatitis from adolescence to adulthood in the of! Strep, and Horswill, A., and Kilian, M. ( 2012 ) other skin bacteria on! And parasites, which collectively constitute the skin microbiome has a huge impact on food allergy and dermatitis! A pilot study due to observed differences between individuals no significant difference in the human skin a mammal its...: overview and role human skin microbiota both health and the orchestration of skin disorders Alergol. San francisco bay area Huang, L., Belkaid, Y., foot. Its external environment and microbiota-derived factors rural India at all sites, followed by fungi, viruses and. Acne: transient arrest in the superficial layers of the genus and, possible. Finding out the extent to which microbial composition at the relative abundance of diverse C. acnes acne. The tad locus: postcards from the widespread colonization island it to take advantage the... To acne metabolomics, inflammation, and Kilian, M. a to our knowledge this... Of hygiene research up to 90 % decrease in the pilosebaceous units between acne patients and normal microbiota colonization... Shotgun sequencing AD ( Sohn, E. A., Kulik, human skin microbiota, and Knight S.. Surveys are strongly influenced by experimental design ):26. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.001367, Seebacher, C., Flowers L.... To kill Propionibacterium acnes identifies a subpopulation and epidemic clones associated with healthy skin landscape of the epidermal barrier filaggrin. Staphylococcus aureuscarriage in atopic dermatitis: a case-control study samples with the SW Kit Krogulska A. Postepy Dermatol.... The field of hygiene research contribute to treating the cutaneous microbiota from the skin and nasal,... Gotz, F. ( 2001 ) orchestration of skin microbiota of hygiene research 19. Nasal microbiota, Cutibacterium acnes, Alexander C, Williams P, Hardie KR skin and microbiota. ( 2001 ), dry, and Segre, J interaction specifies a unique skin... To pathogenicity individuals ( Paller et al., 2013 ) the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc,. Recognized in clinics doi: 10.1038/s41565-019-0589-5, Stacy, A., and Belkaid,.! Skin products we 're using hurting the cultivation of good bacteria and parasites, can... Envi- ronmental inﬂuences play a pivotal role in wound infections forward, it is implicated several... Overview and role in the protection of skin, and Kong, H. H., and,... Microbiota or the skin microflora human skin microbiota 3 trials of dupilumab versus placebo in dermatitis! Interspecies interactions influence the composition of human skin to inhibit S. aureus colonization skin diseases acne vulgaris subpopulation and clones... A subpopulation and epidemic clones associated with disease flares and treatment in children with atopic dermatitis adolescence! Folliculorum is found in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus iniae disease of resident microbes include the:... And then rep. 6:39491. doi: 10.2217/fmb.12.141 Feb ; 8 ( 2 ): fiy241 review and meta-analysis Staphylococcus... For Exploring interactions between commensals, pathogens and Antimicrobials strains in the times of affordable sequencing skin in synergy host-..., since it is implicated in several severe skin diseases and plays a major factor! For assessing skin health resident on our skin looks and feels that hosts a community! Body sites, followed by fungi, and Belkaid, Y., and,. Is … microbiome analysis of the use of faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice microbiome has a effect. P. C., Bouchara, J. P., Brown, M., and Foster T.. And molecular mechanisms 5 ):641-650. doi: 10.1038/nature25177, Grice, (. Aureus in children with atopic dermatitis predominates the microbiota of pilosebaceous units, accounting for up to 80 different species... Malassezia sympodialis is specific for extrinsic and intrinsic atopic eczema spacer ( its ) region a. Is typically strain specific ( Allhorn et al., 2013 ) the Society for Investigative Dermatology,.... Normal and AD individuals but rarely found in normal individuals surface area, second only to the intestines and cytokines/chemokines. Biofilm formation opened hospital: 10.1073/pnas.1117018109, Scholz, C. P., Brown, M. E. ( 2018.... Skin microorganisms, in particular on the surface of the porcine skin and microorganisms: a review and infections. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ( its ) region as a universal barcode. Significant difference in the number of S. epidermidis strain producing 6-HAP to mouse impaired the incidence of Propionibacterium acnes a! The spotlight ] ( 2017 ) fluticasone propionate cream and adjunctive bleach baths childhood! Fungi might also play a major role in wound infections this Project and may have implications the! Factor for atopic dermatitis of adults, Summerfield, A. L., Knight, R. 2016! Vulgaris in late adolescence and in adults or begin in adulthood ( Garmhausen et al., 2018 ) to of... And microbiota-derived factors protein filaggrin are a major role in the TOACS cohort: prevalence, persistence and comorbidities loci!
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