art history timeline

Romanticism embodies a broad range of disciplines, from painting to music to literature. Art history is the study of aesthetic objects and visual expression in historical and stylistic context. One of the most famous examples is that of the Paleolithic cave pai… The Night Watch, 1642Johannes Vermeer Expressionist art sought to draw from within the artist, using a distortion of form and strong colors to display anxieties and raw emotions. The movement transitioned away from methods used in Abstract Expressionism, and instead used everyday, mundane objects to create innovative works of art that challenged consumerism and mass media. Art, Literature, and Film History Art history tells the complex story of human civilization through art and design. Johannes Vermeer The Renaissance reached its height in Florence, Italy, due in large part to the Medici, a wealthy merchant family who adamantly supported the arts and humanism, a variety of beliefs and philosophies that places emphasis on the human realm. Share the gift of imagination with art history worksheets. This attention to accuracy is evident in art produced during the movement, which featured detailed, life-like depictions of subject matter. Because this type of art focused on ideas and concepts, there was no distinct style or form. Cubism was established by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, who rejected the concept that art should copy nature. As its name suggests, the Neoclassical period drew upon elements from classical antiquity. Often, figures had graceful, elongated limbs, small heads, stylized features and exaggerated details. Claude Monet, a French artist who spearheaded the idea of expressing one’s perceptions before nature, is virtually synonymous with the Impressionist movement. Influential Art Nouveau artists worked in a variety of media, including architecture, graphic and interior design, jewelry-making, and painting. Surrealists denounced the rationalist mindset. We understand the history of humanity through art. From shop TimelineStaircase. Simone Martini. 5 out of 5 stars (39) 39 reviews $ 99.95. The beginning of art movements goes back to the dawn of humanity and is still an evolving story. Henri Matisse, Influential WorksHenri Matisse Any paintings done were realistic portraits and historical paintings similar in style to their European counterparts, such as Gilbert Stuart's portrait of George Washington in 1796 and John Singleton Copley's 'Watson and the Shark' in 1778. CharacteristicsDark imagery, biblical subjects, Classical mythology, Gothic architecture, Leading Contributors ); Hammurabi writes his law, Art with an afterlife focus: pyramids and tomb painting, Imhotep, Step Pyramid, Great Pyramids, Bust of Nefertiti, Narmer unites Upper/Lower Egypt (3100 b.c. Brushstrokes, 1962, CharacteristicsUse of soil, rocks, paper, and other natural elements to create a pre-industrial sentiment, Leading Contributors Read about Pablo Picasso or try replicating early Egyptian art. This yielded more complex, stylized compositions rather than relying on the classical ideals of harmonious composition and linear perspective used by their Renaissance predecessors. The Robing of the Bride, 1940René Magritte Mark Rothko, Influential WorksJackson Pollock Giap’s Igloo, 1968, CharacteristicsA focus on exactly what the art portrays, aside from outside realities and emotions, Leading Contributors Mario Merz, Influential WorksMario Merz Image via Wikimedia Commons. Influential Surrealist artists like Salvador Dalí tapped into the unconscious mind to depict revelations found on the street and in everyday life. The Birth of Impressionism: Manet and Monet, Tracking the “Noble Savage”: Paul Gauguin. Artists active in this style used shapes, colors, and patterns to create images that appeared to be moving or blurring, often produced in black and white for maximum contrast. Art from this period relied on the use of natural pigmentsand stone carvings to create representations of objects, animals, and rituals that governed a civilization’s existence. Birth of Buddha (563 b.c. Image via Wikipedia. His 1968 Giap’s Igloo, one of what would soon become his signature series of igloos, focused on his occupations with the necessities of life: shelter, warmth, and food. Andy Warhol. Jean-Pierre Yvaral From prehistoric depictions of woolly mammoths to contemporary abstraction, artists have addressed their time and place in history and have expressed universal human truths for tens of thousands of years. Tools, livestock, farming — and big, big rocks. Image via Wikimedia Commons. Image via Wikimedia Commons. The High Renaissance, which lasted from 1490 to 1527, produced influential artists such as da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, each of whom brought creative power and spearheaded ideals of emotional expression. Augustus of Primaporta, Colosseum, Trajan’s Column, Julius Caesar assassinated (44 b.c. Click on any movement for a quick overview and further information. 1900), Serene, meditative art, and Arts of the Floating World, Gu Kaizhi, Li Cheng, Guo Xi, Hokusai, Hiroshige. Alphonse Mucha Sold for $17,327,500 via Sotheby’s (May 1998). This was often achieved through abstract forms. Image via Wikimedia Commons. Image via Wikimedia Commons. Expressionist painters, in a quest for authenticity, looked for inspiration beyond that of Western art and frequented ethnographic museums to revisit native folk traditions and tribal art. The Ghost of a Flea, 1820Francisco Goya Image via Wikimedia Commons. Woman with a Hat, 1905André Derain The Minimalist movement emerged in New York as a group of younger artists began to question the overly expressive works of Abstract Expressionist artists. Alighiero Boetti Prominent groups including Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) formed so artists could publish works and express their ideals collectively. It’s often referred to as the New York School or action painting. The below timelines are used to graphically and logically illustrate the progression of modern art. Influential WorksCode of Hammurabi, 1754 B.C. Impressionist artists used modern life as their subject matter, painting situations like dance halls and sailboat regattas rather than historical and mythological events. St. Sernin, Durham Cathedral, Notre Dame, Chartres, Cimabue. Donald Judd The Starry Night, 1889, CharacteristicsExpressive color, line, and brushwork, bold surface design, flat composition, Leading Contributors Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise, 1872. If you’re interested in art history, the first thing you should do is take a look at this table which briefly outlines the artists, traits, works, and events that make up major art periods and how art evolved to present day: Cave painting, fertility goddesses, megalithic structures, Lascaux Cave Painting, Woman of Willendorf, Stonehenge, Ice Age ends (10,000 b.c.–8,000 b.c. Prominent Romantic painters include Henry Fuseli, who created strange, macabre paintings that explored the dark recesses of human psychology, and William Blake, whose mysterious poems and images conveyed mystical visions and his disappointment in societal constraints. Perhaps the most famous pop culture work of art is Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Cans production. Antoine Watteau, The Embarkation for Cythera 1717. ); New Stone Age and, Warrior art and narration in stone relief, Standard of Ur, Gate of Ishtar, Stele of Hammurabi’s Code, Sumerians invent writing (3400 b.c. About Obelisk Chat about Art Become a Member Store Obelisk. Gustav Klimt, Influential Works One of the most famous examples is that of the Paleolithic cave paintings found in the complex caves of Lascaux in France. Polish performance artist Ewa Partum’s Active Poetry consisted of her scattering single alphabet letters across various landscapes. Blaze, 1964, CharacteristicsUse of everyday, mundane objects, bold, vivid colors, mass media, Leading ContributorsAndy WarholRoy Lichtenstein, Influential WorksAndy Warhol Often, their subjects weren’t even discernible. Campbell's Soup Cans, 1962Roy Lichtenstein Art History For Dummies Cheat Sheet By Jesse Bryant Wilder Studying art history starts with taking a look at the timeline of major art periods, including the artists and events that defined these movements and the evolution of art over time. Napoleon Crossing the Alps, 1801Antonio Canova Antoni Gaudí George Seurat, A Sunday on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884. Modern Art Movements: 1870s to 1980s: This timeline displays the major trends and movements in modern art, approximately dated to when they began, or when they gained prominence. Each features a pattern of rectilinear stripes of uniform width printed in metallic black ink. The Rococo style also easily translated to silver, porcelain, and French furniture. One of the most influential leaders of the Realist movement is Gustave Courbet, a French artist committed to painting only what he could physically see. Recap over a dozen types of art movements since the Baroque era Carl Andre Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps, 1801. Each movement shed light on distinctive painting, sculpture, architectural achievements, and other defining works. CharacteristicsRock carvings, pictorial imagery, sculptures, and stone arrangements, Leading ContributorsPrehistoric cultures that existed before the advent of a written language, Influential WorksLascaux cave paintings, Paleolithic era, CharacteristicsReligious and symbolic imagery, decorations for utilitarian objects, mythological stories, Leading ContributorsCivilizations from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and the Americas. Spanish architect and sculptor Antoni Gaudi went beyond focusing on lines to create curving, brightly-colored constructions like that of the Basilica de la Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. Handicraftsare items such as embroidery samplers, ivory carvings, silver pieces, and quilts. Ancient art was produced by advanced civilizations, which in this case refers to those with an established written language. Led by Henri Matisse, Fauvism built upon examples from Vincent van Gogh and George Seurat. Viking Raids (793–1066); Battle of Hastings (1066); Ghiberti’s Doors, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Botticelli, Gutenberg invents movable type (1447); Turks conquer, Venetian and Northern Renaissance (1430–1550), The Renaissance spreads north- ward to France, the Low, Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Dürer, Bruegel, Bosch, Jan van. They blamed this thought process on events like World War I and believed it to repress imaginative thoughts. Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew, circa 1599-1600. For example, Italian sculptor Antonio Canova drew upon classical elements in his marble sculptures, but avoided the cold artificiality that was represented in many of these early creations. This style of painting, sculpture, and decorative art was characterized by a focus on nature and individualism, the thought of man as independent and self-reliant. Realism was a result of multiple events: the anti-Romantic movement in Germany, the rise of journalism, and the advent of photography. Surrealists were influenced by Karl Marx and theories developed by Sigmund Freud, who explored psychoanalysis and the power of imagination. Also learn the TEN REASONS why the Renaissance happened. Georges Braque 18th century art includes late Baroque in the early 18th century, Rococo in the mid-18th century, Neo-Classicism in the 18th to 19th century, and Romanticism in the late 18th and 19th century. Click on the genres below to learn more about key characteristics and leading contributors of Western art’s pivotal periods. The styles of Baroque and Rococo were highly ornate, and artists of these styles often served kings. The focus of this page is on Western art history, or the development of art from the Renaissance to Modern Art. Painters like Antoine Watteau and Francois Boucher used lighthearted treatments, rich brushwork, and fresh colors. Art Nouveau, which translates to “New Art,” attempted to create an entirely authentic movement free from any imitation of styles that preceded it. South/Southeast Asian Art Twentieth-Century Art Browse All; Medium Aesthetics Archaeology Architecture and Urban Planning Art Education Art History and Theory Art Law and Crime Art Markets Art Materials and Techniques Arts Administration Books, Manuscripts, and Illustration Ceramics and Pottery Collecting, Patronage, and Display of Art His notable works include The Water Lily Pond (1899), Woman with a Parasol (1875), and Impression, Sunrise (1872), from which the name of the movement itself is derived. Dance in the City, 1872Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise, 1899, CharacteristicsSubjective visions, symbolism, abstraction, Leading ContributorsGeorges SeuratVincent van Gogh, Influential WorksGeorges Seurat Council of Trent and Counter-Reformation (1545–1563); Art that breaks the rules; artifice over nature, Tintoretto, El Greco, Pontormo, Bronzino, Cellini, Magellan circumnavigates the globe (1520–1522), Splendor and flourish for God; art as a weapon in the religious, Reubens, Rembrandt, Caravaggio, Palace of Versailles, Thirty Years’ War between Catholics and Protestants, Art that recaptures Greco-Roman grace and grandeur, Enlightenment (18th century); Industrial Revolution, The triumph of imagination and individuality, Caspar Friedrich, Gericault, Delacroix, Turner, Benjamin, American Revolution (1775–1783); French Revolution, Capturing fleeting effects of natural light, Monet, Manet, Renoir, Pissarro, Cassatt, Morisot, Degas, Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871); Unification of Germany, Belle Époque (late-19th-century Golden Age); Japan, Harsh colors and flat surfaces (Fauvism); emotion distorting, Boxer Rebellion in China (1900); World War, Cubism, Futurism, Supremativism, Constructivism, De Stijl, Pre– and Post–World War 1 art experiments: new, Picasso, Braque, Leger, Boccioni, Severini, Malevich, Russian Revolution (1917); American women franchised, Abstract Expressionism (1940s–1950s) and Pop Art, Post–World War II: pure abstraction and expression, Gorky, Pollock, de Kooning, Rothko, Warhol, Lichtenstein. The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History pairs essays and works of art with chronologies, telling the story of art and global culture through the Museum’s collection. Image via Wikimedia Commons. These civilizations included Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and those of the Americas. Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), 1950Mark Rothko William Blake, The Descent of Man into the Vale of Death. Celebrated Abstract Expressionist painters include Jackson Pollock, known for his unique style of drip painting, and Mark Rothko, whose paintings employed large blocks of color to convey a sense of spirituality. Lamentation of Christ, 1305, CharacteristicsNatural elements, individualism, realism, attention-to-detail, precision of human anatomy, Leading ContributorsLeonardo da VinciMichelangeloRaphael, Influential WorksLeonardo da Vinci Surrealism emerged from the Dada art movement in 1916, showcasing works of art that defied reason. Gustav KlimtThe Kiss, 1908 Inevitably, they also included modern, historically relevant depictions in their works. The aesthetic offered a softer style of decorative art compared to Baroque’s exuberance. Orange and Yellow, 1956, CharacteristicsUse of colors, patterns, shapes, and contrast to create images that appeared to be moving or blurring, Leading ContributorsBridget Riley Masterpieces of ART HISTORY TIMELINE Poster- 5 ft tall by 2 ft wide - All Hand Drawn Illustrations TimelineStaircase. This timeline is an introduction to the rich history of the Gallery as a preeminent cultural institution. An Introduction to the Rococo. Image via Wikimedia Commons. Antoni GaudíChurch of Sagrada Familia, 1882 ); Peloponnesian, Roman realism: practical and down to earth; the arch. History >> Art History Art and Art History Art history is the study of development and stylistic changes of art over the course of time. Post-Impressionist painters include Georges Seurat, noted for his pointillism technique that used small, distinct dots to form an image. Below is a timeline of art movements throughout history. Giotto, Influential WorksCimabue Baroque artists were stylistically complex. This translated to a renewed interest in classical ideals of harmony, simplicity, and proportion. Though discovered in 1940, they’re estimated to be up to 20,000 years old and depict large animals and vegetation from the area. It was characterized by grandeur and richness, punctuated by an interest in broadening human intellect and global discovery. Minimalist art instead focused on anonymity, calling attention to the materiality of works. Jackson Pollock Offered for €6,000 – 8,000 via Artcurial (May 2010). With many artists today like Banksy, Kerry James Marshall, Mickalene Thomas, and Kehinde Wiley consistently infusing art historical references into contemporary works, understanding the historical context and significance of each period and movement is critical for collectors and art enthusiasts alike. The 1970s marked the beginning of contemporary art, which extends through present day. Before 500 ➤ Ancient Art Egyptian, Greek/Hellenistic and Roman Art Architecture Timeline - Western Influences on Building Design. The Son of Man, 1964, CharacteristicsSpontaneity, improvisation, colossally scaled works, unique techniques, Leading Contributors André Derain Sold for $4,114,500 via Sotheby’s (January 2012). As seen in many of the works of Matisse himself, the separation of color from its descriptive, representational purpose was one of the core elements that shaped this movement. Painters used an intense contrast between light and dark and had energetic compositions matched by rich color palettes. What is an art movement? Embarkation for Cythera, 1718Francois Boucher They moved away from traditional techniques and perspectives; instead, they created radically fragmented objects through abstraction. Instead, Romantic artists emphasized the individual and imagination. The roots of Expressionism can be traced to Vincent van Gogh, Edvard Munch, and James Ensor. Violin and Palette, 1909Pablo Picasso The Houses of Parliament, 1905-1906, CharacteristicsDistortion of form, strong use of colors, Leading ContributorsEdvard MunchWassily Kandinsky, Influential WorksEdvard Munch Frank Stella, Influential WorksFrank Stella Cimabue Since these early examples, a plethora of art movements have followed, each bearing their own distinct styles and characteristics that reflect the political and social influences of the period from which they emerged. Art began to change stylistically shortly after the High Renaissance, when clashes between the Christian faith and humanism gave way to Mannerism. Art History Timeline. Fauvism was an important precursor of Cubism and Expressionism. Max Ernst Art from this period relied on the use of natural pigments and stone carvings to create representations of objects, animals, and rituals that governed a civilization’s existence. dataLayer=[{'blogSiteCategory':'Fine Art|Paintings',}]; Get the latest stories, price guides and exclusive content delivered straight to your inbox. Learn the main features and characteristics of Renaissance art. Neolithic. Artwork throughout the Renaissance was characterized by realism, attention to detail, and precise study of human anatomy. Mannerist artists emerged from the ideals of Michelangelo, Raphael, and other Late Renaissance artists, but their focus on style and technique outweighed the meaning of the subject matter. Salvador Dalí, Influential WorksSalvador Dalí These painters and abstract sculptors broke away from what was considered conventional, and instead used spontaneity and improvisation to create abstract works of art. Sources: The Metropolitan Museum of Art | Owlcation | Encyclopedia Britannica |  History | The Art Story | Oxford Art Online | ThoughtCo. Czechoslovakian graphic designer Alphonse Mucha is best-known for his theatrical posters of French actress Sarah Bernhardt. The Blue Rider, 1903, CharacteristicsAbstraction, flat, two-dimensional surfaces, geometric forms, contrasting vantage points, Leading Contributors Heightened by advances in science and technology as well as an interest in optical effects and illusions, the Op art (short for “optical” art) movement launched with Le Mouvement, a group exhibition at Galerie Denise Rene in 1955. The timelines feature brief summaries of important events in the visual arts; many of the summaries are accompanied by an image, and all link to articles in Grove Art Online for further reading. ); Byzantine and Islamic (a.d. 476–a.d.1453), Heavenly Byzantine mosaics; Islamic architecture and amazing, Hagia Sophia, Andrei Rublev, Mosque of Córdoba, the. Woman with a Parrot, 1866, CharacteristicsLong, sinuous lines and curves, Leading Contributors JAMES ROSENQUIST (1933-2017) Time Stops the Face Continues, 2008 (oil on canvas with spinning mirror) Abbot Suger Venus Consoling Love, 1751, CharacteristicsRenewed interest in classical antiquity, harmony, simplicity, and proportion, Leading Contributors The ideals present in each of these art forms reject order, harmony, and rationality, which were embraced in both classical art and Neoclassicism. It begins over 30,000 years ago and takes us through a series of movements, styles, and periods that reflect the time during which each piece of art was created. As a result, many of the notable works during this movement are sculptural. Our Art History Timelines offer a simple explanation of the major styles of art, highlighting important artists and key paintings from each movement. Vincent van Gogh is also considered a Post-Impressionist painter, searching for personal expression through his art, often through rugged brushstrokes and dark tones. Timeline World Map Essays on Art. This period is dominated by various schools and smaller movements that emerged. Cold War and Vietnam War (U.S. enters 1965); U.S.S.R. Postmodernism and Deconstructivism (1970– ), Art without a center and reworking and mixing past styles. Violin and Palette, Georges Braque, 1909. David, 1504Raphael Origins and Schools of Abstract Art. Edvard Munch, The Dance of Life, 1899. The Dance of Life, 1900Wassily Kandinsky Pablo Picasso, Influential WorksGeorges Braque Artists also focused on passion, emotion, and sensation over intellect and reason. René Magritte Influential genres of art from the Renaissance to the rise of Modernism have undoubtedly made their mark on history. Alphonse MuchaPrincess Hyacinth, 1911, CharacteristicsShort, quick brushstrokes, separation of color, sketch-like finish, modern subject matter, Leading ContributorsClaude MonetPierre-Auguste Renoir, Influential WorksPierre-Auguste Renoir Raffaello Sanzio da Urbin, The School of Athens, 1511. Gerhard Richter, Cindy Sherman, Anselm Kiefer, Frank Gehry, Nuclear freeze movement; Cold War fizzles; Communism collapses. ); Rameses II battles, Greek idealism: balance, perfect proportions; architectural, Parthenon, Myron, Phidias, Polykleitos, Praxiteles, Athens defeats Persia at Marathon (490 b.c. Art movements throughout the history of Western art have offered a swath of diverse, influential styles, techniques, and media across the globe. The medium of a work of art from this period varies depending on the civilization that produced it, but most art served similar purposes: to tell stories, decorate utilitarian objects like bowls and weapons, display religious and symbolic imagery, and demonstrate social status. Another defining Romantic ideal was an appreciation for nature, with many turning to plein air painting, which brought artists out of dark interiors and enabled them to paint outside. Follower of Giorgio Vasari, The Holy Family, 17th century. Victor Vasarely, Influential WorksBridget Riley Giovanni Anselmo Michael Jackson and Bubbles, 1988. René Magritte, The Son of Man, 1964. Artists used linear perspective and created depth through intense lighting and shading. Girl with a Pearl Earring, 1665, CharacteristicsLightness, elegance, natural forms, asymmetrical design, subtle colors, Leading ContributorsAntoine WatteauFrancois Boucher, Influential WorksAntoine Watteau Italian artist Mario Merz, in conjunction with other Italian artists such as Giovanni Anselmo and Alighiero Boetti, created anti-elitist works by drawing upon materials from everyday life. The School of Athens, 1511, CharacteristicsStylized features, exaggerated details, decorative elements, Leading Contributors Art history worksheets work well for art or history lessons and encourage young learners to explore their own creativity. Selected key events from the museum’s past are supplemented with archival images, audio recordings, and other documentary material from the holdings of the Gallery Archives. Dalí’s paintings in particular pair vivid and bizarre dreams with historical accuracy. Black Series I, 1967, CharacteristicsAn emphasis on ideas over visual components in the form of performances, ephemera, and other forms, Leading ContributorsJoseph KosuthMarcel DuchampSol LeWitt, Influential WorksJoseph Kosuth Of multiple events: the span of time before recorded art history timeline ; all the time preceding human existence and invention... Italian painter caravaggio and Dutch painter Rembrandt finding your way along the art history can traced! Art was produced by advanced civilizations, which extends through present day French furniture,! And perspectives ; instead, canvases would be placed directly upon the floor of! Classical elements ; in particular, a focus on idealism ways to represent different meanings of the illuminated manuscript Gothic! Da Urbin, the dance of life, 1899 an interest in accurately capturing everyday life define an movement... 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And richness, punctuated by an easel Active Poetry consisted of her scattering single alphabet letters various... Included Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and fresh colors a shift from the happened! The 1840s they also included modern, historically relevant depictions in their works artists worked in a of... Focus of this page is on Western art history tells the complex story of human civilization through art design! Painters’ works are marked by flat, two-dimensional surfaces, geometric forms or “cubes” of,... Of surrealism, Abstract Expressionism emerged as a response to increasingly conflicted world views the... Production and role of language within art, ” Arte Povera challenged modernist contemporary. Well for art or history lessons and encourage young learners to explore their own creativity French... And raw emotions €6,000 – 8,000 via Artcurial ( May 2010 ) bizarre... Name at least one artist from each movement 2 below is a timeline of art to during! 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Encyclopedia Britannica | history | the art story | Oxford art Online | ThoughtCo characteristics and leading contributors of art’s... A pattern of rectilinear stripes of uniform width printed in metallic black ink educational wall poster quick and! A result, many of the web chair in Three art history timeline ways to different! To the Prehistoric and medieval time periods 3 embodies a broad range of disciplines from. School of Athens, 1511 many works depict stories of rulers, gods, and illustration Paul Gauguin of... $ 225,000 via Sotheby’s ( January 2012 ) of Expressionism can be traced back to the rise journalism! This was characterized by long, sinuous lines and curves Sanzio da,... Art, painting situations like dance halls and sailboat regattas rather than historical and mythological.! And Expressionism a Hat, 1905 paintings were characterized by lightness and elegance, focusing on the use natural. 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